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Das Wissenschaftsnetz X-WiN ist der Nachfolger des Gigabit-​Wissenschaftsnetzes G-WiN. Das X-WiN wird vom DFN-Verein betrieben und bildet den nationalen. Über das X-WiN sind Hochschulen, Forschungseinrichtungen und forschungsnahe Unternehmen in Deutschland untereinander, mit den. Anwender des X-WiN (Universitäten, Hochschulen sowie Einrichtungen von Forschung und Lehre in. Deutschland) können auf die technische X-WiN Platt- form. Die Anbindung an das Wissenschaftsnetz X-WiN des DFN (AS) wird im Mai von derzeit 1GBit/s auf 10GBit/s erhöht. Der neue Anschluss erfolgt am. Das Wissenschaftsnetz X-WiN ist die technische Plattform des Deutschen Forschungsnetzes. Über das X-WiN sind Hochschulen, Forschungseinrichtungen und.

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Hochgeschwindigkeitsanbindung an X-WiN für GCS. Die drei Zentren des Gauss Centre for Supercomputing HLRS, JSC und LRZ sind seit Oktober mit einer. Das Wissenschaftsnetz X-WiN ist die technische Plattform des Deutschen Forschungsnetzes. Über das X-WiN sind Hochschulen, Forschungseinrichtungen und. Das Wissenschaftsnetz X-WiN ist der Nachfolger des Gigabit-​Wissenschaftsnetzes G-WiN. Das X-WiN wird vom DFN-Verein betrieben und bildet den nationalen. X-Win

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An X client itself may emulate an X server by providing display services to other clients. This is known as "X nesting".

Open-source clients such as Xnest and Xephyr support such X nesting. The remote X client application will then make a connection to the user's local X server, providing display and input to the user.

Alternatively, the local machine may run a small program that connects to the remote machine and starts the client application.

The first principle was modified during the design of X11 to: "Do not add new functionality unless you know of some real application that will require it.

X has largely kept to these principles. The sample implementation is developed with a view to extension and improvement of the implementation, while remaining compatible with the original protocol.

As a result, there is no typical X interface and several different desktop environments have become popular among users. A window manager controls the placement and appearance of application windows.

Some interfaces such as Sugar or Chrome OS eschew the desktop metaphor altogether, simplifying their interfaces for specialized applications.

Window managers range in sophistication and complexity from the bare-bones e. Many users use X with a desktop environment, which, aside from the window manager, includes various applications using a consistent user-interface.

The freedesktop. Org implementation is the canonical implementation of X. Owing to liberal licensing, a number of variations, both free and open source and proprietary, have appeared.

Commercial Unix vendors have tended to take the reference implementation and adapt it for their hardware, usually customizing it and adding proprietary extensions.

Up until , XFree86 provided the most common X variant on free Unix-like systems. XFree86 started as a port of X to compatible PCs and, by the end of the s, had become the greatest source of technical innovation in X and the de facto standard of X development.

Since , however, the X. Org Server, a fork of XFree86, has become predominant. While it is common to associate X with Unix, X servers also exist natively within other graphical environments.

VMS Software Inc. Apple originally ported X to macOS in the form of X There are also Java implementations of X servers. WeirdX runs on any platform supporting Swing 1.

When an operating system with a native windowing system hosts X in addition, the X system can either use its own normal desktop in a separate host window or it can run rootless , meaning the X desktop is hidden and the host windowing environment manages the geometry and appearance of the hosted X windows within the host screen.

An X terminal is a thin client that only runs an X server. This architecture became popular for building inexpensive terminal parks for many users to simultaneously use the same large computer server to execute application programs as clients of each user's X terminal.

This use is very much aligned with the original intention of the MIT project. X terminals explore the network the local broadcast domain using the X Display Manager Control Protocol to generate a list of available hosts that are allowed as clients.

One of the client hosts should run an X display manager. A limitation of X terminals and most thin clients is that they are not capable of any input or output other than the keyboard, mouse, and display.

All relevant data is assumed to exist solely on the remote server, and the X terminal user has no methods available to save or load data from a local peripheral device.

Dedicated hardware X terminals have fallen out of use; a PC or modern thin client with an X server typically provides the same functionality at the same, or lower, cost.

The Unix-Haters Handbook devoted a full chapter to the problems of X. The lack of design guidelines in X has resulted in several vastly different interfaces, and in applications that have not always worked well together.

Further standards efforts such as Motif and CDE did not alleviate problems. This has frustrated users and programmers.

Various desktop environments may thus offer their own usually mutually incompatible facilities. Systems built upon X may have accessibility issues that make utilization of a computer difficult for disabled users, including right click , double click , middle click , mouse-over , and focus stealing.

Some X11 clients deal with accessibility issues better than others, so persons with accessibility problems are not locked out of using X However, there is no accessibility standard or accessibility guidelines for X Within the X11 standards process there is no working group on accessibility, however, accessibility needs are being addressed by software projects to provide these features on top of X.

An X client cannot generally be detached from one server and reattached to another unless its code specifically provides for it Emacs is one of the few common programs with this ability.

As such, moving an entire session from one X server to another is generally not possible. However, approaches like Virtual Network Computing VNC , NX and Xpra allow a virtual session to be reached from different X servers in a manner similar to GNU Screen in relation to terminals , and other applications and toolkits provide related facilities.

This ability allows the user interface mouse, keyboard, monitor of a running application to be switched from one location to another without stopping and restarting the application.

Network traffic between an X server and remote X clients is not encrypted by default. An attacker with a packet sniffer can intercept it, making it possible to view anything displayed to or sent from the user's screen.

Like all thin clients , when using X across a network, bandwidth limitations can impede the use of bitmap -intensive applications that require rapidly updating large portions of the screen with low latency, such as 3D animation or photo editing.

In contrast, modern versions of X generally have extensions such as MESA allowing local display of a local program's graphics to be optimized to bypass the network model and directly control the video card, for use of full-screen video, rendered 3D applications, and other such applications.

X's design requires the clients and server to operate separately, and device independence and the separation of client and server incur overhead.

Most of the overhead comes from network round-trip delay time between client and server latency rather than from the protocol itself: the best solutions to performance issues depend on efficient application design.

Modern X implementations use Unix domain sockets for efficient connections on the same host. It is also necessary to provide fallback paths in order to stay compatible with older implementations, and in order to communicate with non-local X servers.

Some people have attempted writing alternatives to and replacements for X. Current alternatives include:.

Additional ways to achieve a functional form of the "network transparency" feature of X, via network transmissibility of graphical services, include:.

Several bitmap display systems preceded X. From Xerox came the Alto and the Star From Apollo Computer came Display Manager From Apple came the Lisa and the Macintosh Carnegie Mellon University produced a remote-access application called Alto Terminal, that displayed overlapping windows on the Xerox Alto, and made remote hosts typically DEC VAX systems running Unix responsible for handling window-exposure events and refreshing window contents as necessary.

X derives its name as a successor to a pre window system called W the letter preceding X in the English alphabet.

W ran under the V operating system. W used a network protocol supporting terminal and graphics windows, the server maintaining display lists.

Scheifler needed a usable display environment for debugging the Argus system. Project Athena a joint project between DEC , MIT and IBM to provide easy access to computing resources for all students needed a platform-independent graphics system to link together its heterogeneous multiple-vendor systems; the window system then under development in Carnegie Mellon University 's Andrew Project did not make licenses available, and no alternatives existed.

The project solved this by creating a protocol that could both run local applications and call on remote resources. In mid an initial port of W to Unix ran at one-fifth of its speed under V; in May , Scheifler replaced the synchronous protocol of W with an asynchronous protocol and the display lists with immediate mode graphics to make X version 1.

X became the first windowing system environment to offer true hardware independence and vendor independence. Scheifler, Gettys and Ron Newman set to work and X progressed rapidly.

They released Version 6 in January DEC, then preparing to release its first Ultrix workstation, judged X the only windowing system likely to become available in time.

By , outside organizations had begun asking for X. Although MIT had licensed X6 to some outside groups for a fee, it decided at this time to license X10R3 and future versions under what became known as the MIT License , intending to popularize X further and, in return, hoping that many more applications would become available.

X10R3 became the first version to achieve wide deployment, with both DEC and Hewlett-Packard releasing products based on it.

Demonstrations of the first commercial application for X a mechanical computer-aided engineering system from Cognition Inc.

The last version of X10, X10R4, appeared in December Attempts were made to enable X servers as real-time collaboration devices, much as Virtual Network Computing VNC would later allow a desktop to be shared.

One such early effort was Philip J. Gust's SharedX tool. Although X10 offered interesting and powerful functionality, it had become obvious that the X protocol could use a more hardware-neutral redesign before it became too widely deployed, but MIT alone would not have the resources available for such a complete redesign.

This process started in May , with the protocol finalized in August. Alpha testing of the software started in February , beta-testing in May; the release of X11 finally occurred on 15 September X therefore represents one of the first very large-scale distributed free and open source software projects.

By the late s X was, Simson Garfinkel wrote in , "Athena's most important single achievement to date".

DEC reportedly believed that its development alone had made the company's donation to MIT worthwhile. In January , the MIT X Consortium formed as a non-profit vendor group, with Scheifler as director, to direct the future development of X in a neutral atmosphere inclusive of commercial and educational interests.

Jim Fulton joined in January and Keith Packard in March as senior developers , with Jim focusing on Xlib , fonts , window managers, and utilities; and Keith re-implementing the server.

Donna Converse, Chris D. In , the X Consortium, Inc. It released X11R6 on 16 May In it took on the development of the Motif toolkit and of the Common Desktop Environment for Unix systems.

The X Consortium dissolved at the end of , producing a final revision, X11R6. The Open Group released X11R6. Controversially, X11R6.

XFree86 evolved over time from just one port of X to the leading and most popular implementation and the de facto standard of X's development.

Org supervised the release of versions X11R6. X development at this time had become moribund; [25] most technical innovation since the X Consortium had dissolved had taken place in the XFree86 project.

Org as an honorary non-paying member, [27] encouraged by various hardware companies [28] interested in using XFree86 with Linux and in its status as the most popular version of X.

By , while the popularity of Linux and hence the installed base of X surged, X. Org remained inactive, [29] and active development took place largely within XFree However, considerable dissent developed within XFree The XFree86 project suffered from a perception of a far too cathedral -like development model; developers could not get CVS commit access [30] [31] and vendors had to maintain extensive patch sets.

Org and XFree86 began discussing a reorganisation suited to properly nurturing the development of X. Finally, in an echo of the X11R6.

In early , various people from X. Org and freedesktop. Org Foundation , and the Open Group gave it control of the x. This marked a radical change in the governance of X.

Whereas the stewards of X since including the prior X. Org had been vendor organizations, the Foundation was led by software developers and used community development based on the bazaar model, [ citation needed ] which relies on outside involvement.

Membership was opened to individuals, with corporate membership being in the form of sponsorship. Several major corporations such as Hewlett-Packard currently support the X.

Org Foundation. The Foundation takes an oversight role over X development: technical decisions are made on their merits by achieving rough consensus among community members.

Technical decisions are not made by the board of directors; in this sense, it is strongly modelled on the technically non-interventionist GNOME Foundation.

The Foundation employs no developers. The Foundation released X11R6. Org Server , in April , based on XFree86 4.

Gettys and Packard had taken the last version of XFree86 under the old license and, by making a point of an open development model and retaining GPL compatibility, brought many of the old XFree86 developers on board.

While X11 had received extensions such as OpenGL support during the s, its architecture had remained fundamentally unchanged during the decade.

It added significant new features, including preliminary support for translucent windows and other sophisticated visual effects, screen magnifiers and thumbnailers, and facilities to integrate with 3D immersive display systems such as Sun's Project Looking Glass and the Croquet project.

External applications called compositing window managers provide policy for the visual appearance. Reviews Current version All versions. Sort Date Most helpful Positive rating Negative rating.

Pros I want to use this software to monitor some servers on my network. Cons I want to use this software to monitor some servers on my network. Summary I want to use this software to monitor some servers on my network.

Pros b Cons c. Pros It is easy to use Cons It does not have too many options. Results 1—3 of 3 1. Please Wait. Submit Your Reply.

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